2008 Back to Top

Kim, M-K., B.A. McCarl, and B.C. Murray 2008. Permanence Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration. Ecological Economics: vol. 64 (2), issue 4, 763-769.


Maloney K.O., C.T. Garten Jr., and T.L. Ashwood. 2008. Changes in soil properties following 55 years of secondary forest succession at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. Restoration Ecology (in press).


Matamala, R., J.D. Jastrow, R.M. and C.T. Garten. 2008. Temporal Changes in the Distribution of C. and N Stocks in Restored Tallgrass Prairie in the U.S. Midwest, Implications for Carbon Sequestration Strategies. Ecol. Appli. 18(6):1470-1488. 10.1007/s10584-006-9178-3.


McCarl, B.A. 2008. "Bioenergy in a greenhouse mitigating world," Choices: 23(1), 31-33.


McCarl, B.A. 2008. "Food, BioFuel, Global Agriculture and Environment: Discussion," Review of Agricultural Economics, Proceedings Issue. In press.


McCarl, B.A., X. Villavicencio, and X.M. Wu. 2008. "Climate Change and Future Analysis: Is Stationarity Dying": American Journal of Agricultural Economics, In press


McCarthy, John F. , Jan Ilavsky, Julie D. Jastrow, Lawrence M. Mayer, Edmund Perfect, and Jie Zhuang. 2008. Protection of organic carbon in soil microaggregates via restructuring of aggregate porosity and filling of pores with accumulating organic matter. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72: 4725–4744


Rose, S. and B.A. McCarl. 2008. "Greenhouse gas emissions, stabilization and the inevitability of adaptation: challenges for agriculture," Choices, 23(1): 15-18.


Post, Wilfred M., James E. Amonette, Richard Birdsey, Charles T. Garten Jr., R. Cesar Izaurralde, Philip M. Jardine, Julie Jastrow, Rattan Lal, Gregg Marland, Bruce A. McCarl, Allison M. Thomson, Tristram O. West, Stan D. Wullschleger, and F. Blaine Metting. 2008. “Terrestrial Biological Carbon Sequestration: Science for Enhancement and Implementation”. AGU Monograph in press


Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H.H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B.A. McCarl, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, R. Scholes, O. Sirotenko, M. Howden, T. McAllister, S.M. Ogle, G. Pan, V. Romanenkov, U.A. Schneider, S. Towprayoon, M. Wattenbach, and J.E. Smith. 2008. "Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, In press.


Thomson, Allison M. Thomson, R. Cesar Izaurralde, Steven J. Smith, and Leon E. Clarke. 2008. Integrated estimates of global terrestrial carbon sequestration. Global Environmental Change 18 :192–203.


West, Tristam O., Bradley S. Wilson, Chad M. Hellwinkle, Donald D. Tyler, Gregg Marland, Daniel G. De La Torre Ugarte, James A. Larson and Richard G. Nelson. 2008. Estimating Regional Changes in Soil Carbon with High Spatial Resolution. Soil Sci Soc Amer. J. 72(2)


Zhuang, J., J.F. McCarthy, E. Perfact, L.M. Mayer, and J. Jastrow. 2008. Soil Water Hysterisis in Water-Stable Microaggregates as Affected by Organic Matter. Soil Sci Soc Amer. J. 72

2007 Back to Top

Allison, V. J., Z. Yermakov, R. M. Miller, J. D. Jastrow, R. Matamala. 2007. "Assessing Soil Microbial Community Composition Across Landscapes: Do surface soils reveal patterns?" Soil Science Society of America Journal 71:730-734.


Allison, V.J., Z. Yermakov, R.M. Miller, J.D. Jastrow, and R. Matamala. 2007. Using landscape and depth gradients to decouple the impact of correlated environmental variables on soil microbial community composition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39:505-516.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, W. M. Post, R.C. Izaurralde, and M.J. Shipitalo. 2007. Soil hydraulic properties influenced by corn stover removal from no-till corn in Ohio. Soil Tillage Res. 92:144-155.

Causarano, H.J., J.N. Shaw, A.J. Franzluebbers, D.W. Reeves, R.L. Raper, K.S. Balkcom, M.L. Norfleet, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2007. Simulating field-scale soil organic carbon dynamics using EPIC. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:1174-1185.

Dornburg, V. and G. Marland. 2007. Temporary storage of carbon in the biosphere does have value for climate change mitigation: a response to the paper by Miko Kirschbaum. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, DOI 10.1007/s11027-007-9113-6.

Elbakidze, L., and B.A. McCarl. 2007. "Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Co-effects," Ecological Economics: 60:564-571.

Gan, J., and B.A. McCarl. 2007. "Measuring transnational leakage of forest conservation", Ecological Economics, 64:423-432.

Garten Jr., C.T., P.J. Hanson, D.E. Todd Jr., B.W. Lu, and D.J. Brice. 2007. Natural 15N and 13C abundance as indicators of forest N status and soil C dynamics, pp. 61-82. IN (R.H. Michener and K. Lajtha, eds.) Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science (second edition). Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Garten Jr., C.T., S.H. Kang, D.J. Brice, C.W. Schadt, and J. Zhou. 2007. Variability in soil properties at different spatial scales (1 m to 1 km) in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 2621-2627.

Gustavsson, L., J. Holmberg, V. Dornburg, R. Sathre, T. Eggers, K. Mahapatra, and G. Marland. 2007. Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction. Energy Policy, in press.

Izaurralde, R.C., J.R. Williams, W.M. Post, A.M. Thomson, W.B. McGill, and L.B. Owens, R. Lal. 2007. "Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale." Climatic Change 80:73-90 doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9167-6.

Jastrow, J. D., J. E. Amonette, and V. L. Bailey. 2007. " Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration." Climatic Change 80:5-23 doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9178-3.

Lee, H-C., B.A. McCarl, U.A. Schneider, and C.C. Chen. 2007. "Leakage and Comparative Advantage Implications of Agricultural Participation in Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Volume 12, Number 4 / May, 471-494.

Marland G., M. Obersteiner, and B. Schlamadinger. 2007. The carbon benefits of fuels and forests. Science 318:1066.

Martin M.Z., S.D. Wullschleger, C.T. Garten Jr., and A.V. Palumbo. 2007. Measurement of carbon for carbon sequestration and site monitoring, pp. 341-352. IN (J.P. Singh and S.N. Thakur, eds.) Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Elsevier, New York.

McCarl, B.A., F.B. Metting, and C. Rice. 2007. "Soil carbon sequestration." Climatic Change 80:1-3 doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9174-7.

McCarl, B.A., and R.D. Sands. 2007. "Competitiveness of terrestrial greenhouse gas offsets: are they a bridge to the future?" Climatic Change 80:109-126 doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9168-5.

Miller, R.M. and D.J Lodge 2007. “Chapter 4, Fungal Responses to Disturbance: Agriculture and Forestry” In Biology of the Fungal Cell, 2nd Edition, The Mycota IV, Environmental and Microbial Relationships, 2nd ed., edited by R.J Howard and N.A.R Gow. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Porter. T.M., C.W. Schadt, L. Rizvi, A.P. Martin, S.K. Sxhmidt, L.Scott-Denton, R. Vilgalys, and J.M. Moncalvo. 2007. Widespread occurrence and phylogenetic placement of a soil clone group adds a prominent new branch to the fungal tree of life. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution: doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.10.002


Post, W.M., R.C. Izaurralde, P.M. Jardine, C. Brandt, A.B. Adams, R.B. Harrison, T.O. West, and J.D. Jastrow. Carbon sequestration in soils: A framework for integrated assessment. In B. McPherson and E. Sundquist (eds.) Science and technology of Carbon Sequestration. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC (in press).

Sanchez F.G., M. Coleman, C.T. Garten Jr., R.J. Luxmoore, J.A. Stanturf, C. Trettin, and S.D. Wullschleger. 2007. Soil carbon, after 3 years, under short rotation woody crops grown under varying nutrient and water availability. Biomass and Bioenergy 31: 793-801.

Schneider, U.A., B.A. McCarl, and E. Schmid. 2007. "Agricultural Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in US Agriculture and Forestry," Agricultural Systems, 94, 128-140.

Smith, J.L., J.M. Bell, H. Bolton, Jr., and V.L. Bailey. 2007. The initial rate of C substrate utilization and longer-term soil C storage. Biology and Fertility of Soils. (in press, doi: 10.1007/s00374-007-0206-x)

Smith, G.A., B.A. McCarl, C.S. Li, J.H. Reynolds, R. Hammerschlag, R.L. Sass, W.J. Parton, S.M. Ogle, K. Paustian, J.A. Holtkamp, and W. Barbour. 2007. Harnessing farms and forests in the low-carbon economy: how to create, measure, and verify greenhouse gas offsets, Edited by Zach Willey and Bill Chameides, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 229 pp.

Spreng, D., G. Marland, and A. Weinberg. 2007. CO2 capture and storage: Another Faustian Bargain? Energy Policy 35:850-854.


Tan, Z., R. Lal, L. Owens, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2007. Distribution of light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon as related to land use and tillage practice. Soil Tillage Res. 92:53-59.

Tonn, B., and G. Marland. 2007. Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties. Environmental Science and Policy 10: 162-168.

West, T. O., and J. Six. 2007 "Considering the influence of sequestration duration and carbon saturation on estimates of soil carbon capacity." Climatic Change 80:25-41 doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9173-8.

Zhuang, J., J.F. McCarthy, E. Perfect, L.M. Mayer, and J.D. Jastrow. Soil water hysteresis in water-stable microaggregates as affected by organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal (in press).

2006 Back to Top
Allison, SD, and JD Jastrow. 2006. “Activities of extracellular enzymes in physically isolated fractions of restored grassland soils.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38:3245-3256.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, W. M. Post, R.C. Izaurralde, and M.J. Shipitalo. 2006. Soil hydraulic properties influenced by corn stover removal from no-till corn in Ohio. Soil Tillage Res. (in press; available online doi:10.1016/j.still.2006.02.002).

Blanco-Canqui, H, R Lal, LB Owens, WM Post, and RC Izaurralde. 2006. “Mechanical. properties of soil aggregates for diverse land use and management system in the North Appalachian region.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:1472-1481.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, W. M. Post, R.C. Izaurralde, and L.B. Owens. 2006. “Rapid changes in soil structure and organic carbon by stover removal from long-term no-till Corn.” Soil Sci. 171:468-482.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, W.M. Post, R.C. Izaurralde, and M. J. Shipitalo. 2006. Organic carbon influences on soil particle density and rheological properties. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 70:1407-1414.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, W.M. Post, and R.C. Izaurralde, and L.B. Owens, 2006. Corn stover impacts on near-surface soil properties of no-till corn in Ohio. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:266-278.

Fike, J.H., D.J. Parrish, D.D. Wolf, J.A. Balasko, J.T. Green Jr., M. Rasnake, and J.H. Reynolds. 2006. Switchgrass production for the upper southeastern USA: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yield. Biomass & Bioenergy 30: 207-213.

Fike, J.H., D.J. Parrish, D.D. Wolf, J.A. Balasko, J.T. Green Jr., M. Rasnake, and J.H. Reynolds. 2006.  Long-term yield potential of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. Biomass & Bioenergy 30: 198-206.

Gentry, TJ, GS Wickham, CW Schadt, Z He, and J Zhou. 2006. “Microarray applications in microbial ecology research.” Microbial Ecology (in press).

Gentry, TJ, CW Schadt, Z He, and J Zhou. 2006. “Functional Gene Arrays for Microbial Community Analysis.” In Manual of Environmental Microbiology (Crawford et al, eds) American Society for Microbiology (in press).

He, X., R.C. Izaurralde, M.B. Vanotti, J.R. Williams, and A.M. Thomson. 2006. Simulating long-term crop productivity and soil organic carbon dynamics with the EPIC model using data from Arlington, WI. J. Environ. Qual. 35:1608–1619.

Izaurralde, R.C., and C.W. Rice. 2006. Methods and tools for designing pilot soil carbon sequestration projects. p. 457-476 In R. Lal (ed.) Carbon Sequestration in Latin America. The Haworth Press, Inc., New York, NY.

 Izaurralde, RC, JR Williams, WB McGill, NJ Rosenberg, and MC Quiroga Jakas. 2006. “Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data.” Ecological Modelling 192:362-384.

Johnson, N.C., J. D. Hoeksema, J. D. Bever, V. B. Chaudhary, C. Gehring, J. Klironomos, R. Koide, R. M. Miller, J. Moore, P. Moutoglis, M. Schwartz, S. Simard, W. Swenson, J. Umbanhowar, G. Wilson, and C. Zabinski. 2006. "From Lilliput to Brobdingnag: Extending Models of Mycorrhizal Function across Scales." BioScience 56:889-900.

Liao, JD, TW Boutton, and JD Jastrow. 2006. “Storage and dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in soil physical fractions following woody plant invasion of grassland.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38:3184-3196.

Liao, JD, TW Boutton, and JD Jastrow. 2006. “Organic matter turnover in soil physical fractions following woody plant invasion of grassland: Evidence from natural 13C and 15N.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38:3197-3210.

Liebich, J, CW Schadt, SC Chong, SK Rhee, and J Zhou. 2006. “Improvement of oligonucleotide probe design criteria for the development of functional gene microarrays for environmental applications.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72:1688‑1691.

McCarl, B.A., M-K. Kim, H-C. Lee, B.C. Murray, R.D. Sands, and U.A. Schneider. 2006. Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies that Might Influence IAM Modeling, IN Integrated Assessment of Human Induced Climate Change, edited by Michael Schlesinger, Haroon Kheshgi, Joel Smith, Francisco de la Chesnaye, John Reilly, Tom Wilson and Charlie Kolstad.

McLauchlan, K., S.E. Hobbie, and W.M. Post III. 2006. Conversion from agriculture to grassland builds soil organic matter on decadal timescales. Ecological Applications 16:143-153.

Post, WM, RC Izaurralde, PM Jardine, C Brandt, AB Adams, RB Harrison, TO West, and JD Jastrow (in press). 2006. “Carbon Sequestration in Soils: A Framework for Integrated Assessment.” In Science and Technology of Carbon Sequestration, American Geophysical Union. (B McPherson and E Sundquist, eds.)

Sartori, F., R. Lal, M.H. Ebinger, and D.J. Parrish. 2006. Potential soil carbon sequestration and CO2 offset by dedicated energy crops in the USA. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 25: 441-472.

Schadt CW, and J Zhou. 2006. “Advances in Microarrays for Soil Microbial Community Analyses.” In Soil Biology Series, Volume 8: Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Soil (P Nannipieri & K Smalla, eds). Springer-Verlag, pages 189-203.

Tan, Z., R. Lal, L. Owens, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2006. Distribution of light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon as related to land use and tillage practice. Soil Tillage Research. (in press; available online doi:10.1016/j.still.2006.02.002).

Thomson, A.M., R.C. Izaurralde, N.J. Rosenberg, and X. He. 2006. Climate change impacts on agriculture and soil carbon sequestration potential in the Huang-Hai Plain of China. Agric. Ecosystems Environ. 114:195-209.

West, T.O. and J. Six. 2006. Considering the influence of sequestration duration and carbon saturation on estimates of soil carbon capacity. Climatic Change, forthcoming.

Wu, L, X Liu, CW Schadt, and J Zhou. 2006. “Microarray-based analysis of sub-nanogram quantities of microbial community DNAs using Whole Community Genome Amplification (WCGA).” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 4931-4941.

Wu, L, X Liu, CW Schadt, and J Zhou. 2006. “Microarray-based analysis of sub-nanogram quantities of microbial community DNAs using Whole Community Genome Amplification (WCGA).” Applied and Environmental Microbiology (in press).

2005
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Allison, VJ, and RM Miller. 2005. “Soil grinding increases the relative abundance of eukaryotic phospholipid fatty acids.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:423‑426.

Allison, VJ, RM Miller, JD Jastrow, R Matamala, and DR Zak. 2005. “Changes in soil microbial community structure in a tallgrass prairie chronosequence.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:1412-1421.

Bailey, V.L., J.L. Smith, and H. Bolton, Jr. 2005. Substrate-Induced Respiration and Selective Inhibition as Measures of Microbial Activity in Soils, in: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis, M.R. Carter (ed). (in press).

Bailey, V.L., J.L. Smith, and H. Bolton, Jr. 2005. 14C Cycling in Lignocellulose-Amended Soils: Predicting Long-Term C Fate from Short-Term Indicators. Biology and Fertility of Soils 42:198-206.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, L.B. Owens, W.M. Post, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2005. Strength properties and organic carbon of soils in the North Appalachian region. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 69:663-673.

Blanco-Canqui, H., R. Lal, L.B. Owens, W.M. Post, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2005. Mechanical properties and organic carbon of soil aggregates in the Northern Appalachians. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 69:1472-1481.

Brouwer, F, and BA McCarl, editors. 2005. “Rural Lands, Agriculture and Climate Beyond 2015: Usage and Management Responses.” Springer, Dordrect, Netherlands, 2006.

Fansler, S.J., J.L. Smith, H. Bolton, Jr., and V.L. Bailey. 2005. Distribution of two C cycle enzymes in soil aggregates of a prairie chronosequence. Biology and Fertility of Soils 42:17-23.

Heuscher, SA, CC Brandt, and PM Jardine. 2005. “Using Soil physical and chemical properties to estimate soil bulk density.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:1-7.

Izaurralde, R.C. 2005. Measuring and monitoring soil carbon sequestration at the project level. p. 467-500. In R. Lal, B.A.

Stewart, N. Uphoff, and D.O. Hansen (eds.) Climate Change and Global Food Security. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.

Jain, AK, TO West, X Yang, and WM Post. 2005. “Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration in agricultural soils.” Geophysical Research Letters 32:L19711, doi:10.1029/2005GL023922.

Lee, H-C, BA McCarl, and D Gillig. 2005. “U.S. Agriculture and forestry based greenhouse gas emissions mitigation: an economic exploration of time dependent effects.” In Rural Lands, Agriculture and Climate Beyond 2015: Usage and Management Responses. Springer, Dordrect, Netherlands, 2006. F Brouwer and B McCarl, editors.

Murray, B.C., A.J. Sommer, B. Depro, B. Sohngen, B.A. McCarl, D. Gillig, B. de Angelo, and K. Andrasko, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture, EPA Report 430-R-05-006, November, 2005.

Parrish, D.J. and J.H. Fike. 2005. The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24: 423-459.

Puget, P, R Lal, RC Izaurralde, WM Post, and L Owens. 2005. “Stock and distribution of total and corn-derived soil organic carbon in aggregate and primary particle fractions for different land use and soil management practices.” Soil Science 170:256-279.

Schadt C, J Leibich, S Chong, T Gentry, Z He, H Pan, and J Zhou. 2005. “Design and Use of Functional Gene Microarrays (FGAs) for the Characterization of Microbial Communities.” In Methods in Microbiology Volume 33: Microbial Imaging. Academic Press pages 331-368, (Savidge & Pothoulakis, eds).

Schadt, CW, and J Zhou. 2005. “Advances in Microarrays for soil microbial community analyses.” In Soil Biology, Volume 4: Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Soil. Springer-Verlag (in press) K. Smalla, editor.

Wang, X, X He, JR Williams, RC Izaurralde, and JD Atwood. 2005. “Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of EPIC for the simulations of crop yield and organic carbon.” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 48:1041-1054.

West, T.O. and A.C. McBride. 2005. “The contribution of agricultural lime to carbon dioxide emissions in the United States: dissolution, transport, and net emissions.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 108:145-154.

West, TO, and J Six. 2005. “Considering the influence of sequestration duration and carbon saturation on estimates of soil carbon capacity.” Climatic Change (In press).

Williams, J.R., and R.C. Izaurralde. 2005. The APEX model. p. 437-482. In V.P. Singh and D.K. Frevert (eds.) Watershed models. Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

2004 Back to Top

Allison, VJ, and RM Miller. 2004. “Using fatty acids to quantify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.” In Mycorrhizae: Basic Research and Applications. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Pages 141-161,G, Podila and A Varma (eds.).

Amonette, JE, J Kim, and CK Russell. 2004. Enzymatic control of humification. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory 2003 Annual Report, PNNL-14621, Section 2-2:7-8, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington).

Amonette, JE, J Kim, and CK Russell. 2004. “Enhancement of soil carbon sequestration: A catalytic approach.” Preprint paper - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry 49(1):366-367

Gillig, D, BA McCarl, and RD Sands. 2004. “Integrating agricultural and forestry GHG mitigation response into general economy frameworks: Developing a family of response functions.” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 9(3):241-259.

Heuscher, SA, CC Brandt, and PM Jardine. 2004. “Soil bulk density estimation for the USDA/NRCS/NSSL/Soil Survey Laboratory National Characterization data.” Soil Science Society of America Journal (in press).

Laiho, R, L Finer, CC Trettin, and J Laine. 2004. “Scots pine litter decomposition along drainage succession and soil nutrient gradients in peatland forests, and the effects on inter-annual weather variation.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(7):1095-1109

Li, C, J Cui, G Sun, and C Trettin. 2004. “Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetlands.” Environmental Management 33:S176-S186

Marland, G, CT Garten Jr., WM Post, and TO West. 2004. “Studies on enhancing carbon sequestration in soils.” Energy 29(9-10):1643-1650.

Mayer, LM, LL Schick, KR Hardy, R Wagai, and J McCarthy. 2004. “Organic matter in small mesopores in sediments and soils.” Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 68:3863-3872.

McCarl, BA. 2004. “Permanence, Leakage, Additivity and Uncertainty.” In Terrestrial GHG Quantification and Accounting. GA Smith, editor. Forthcoming Duke University Press.

McCarl, BA, D Gillig, H-C Lee, MM El-Halwagi, X Qin, and G Cornforth. 2004. “Economic exploration of biofuel based greenhouse gas emissions mitigation.” In Agriculture as a Producer and Consumer of Energy. K Collins and J Outlaw, editors.

Miller, RM. 2004. “Commentary on role of genetically modified soil organisms in soil carbon sequestration.” In Applications of Biotechnology to Mitigation of Greenhouse Warming. Proceedings of St. Michaels II Workshop, St. Michaels, MD, 13-15 April 2003. pages 90-93, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.

NJ Rosenberg, FB Metting, and RC Izaurralde (eds.). Murray, BC, BA McCarl, and H-C Lee. 2004. “Estimating leakage from forest carbon sequestration programs.” Land Economics 80(1):109-124.

Palumbo, AV, JF McCarthy, JE Amonette, LS Fisher, SD Wullschleger, and WL Daniels. 2004. “Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-Fuel Combustion By-products.” Adv. Environ. Res. 8:425‑438. Pattanayak, SK, BA McCarl, AJ Sommer, BC Murray, T Bondelid, D Gillig, and G deAngelo. 2004. “Water quality co-effects of greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture.” Climatic Change 71, 341-372, 2005.

Paustian, K, BA Babcock, J Hatfield, R Lal, BA McCarl, S McLaughlin, A Mosier, C Rice, GP Robertson, NJ Rosenberg, and C Rosenzweig. 2004. “Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options.” Council on Agricultural Science and Technology, Report R141 2004, page 120.

Post, WM, RC Izaurralde, JD Jastrow, BA McCarl, JE Amonette, VL Bailey, PM Jardine, and J Zhou. 2004. “Enhancement of carbon sequestration in U.S. soils.” BioScience 54:895-908.

Schadt, C, J Leibich, S Chong, T Gentry, Z He, H Pan, and J Zhou. 2004. “Design and use of functional gene microarrays (FGAs) for the characterization of microbial communities.” In Methods in Microbiology, Volume 33: Microbial Imaging. Academic Press (in press), Savidge and Pothoulakis, editors.

Tan, ZX, R Lal, RC Izaurralde, and WM Post. 2004. “Biochemically protected soil organic carbon at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed.” Soil Science 169:423-433.

West, TO, G Marland, WM Post, AW King, AK Jain, and K Andrasko. 2004. “Carbon management response curves: Estimates of temporal carbon dynamics.” Environmental Management 33:507-518.

Tiquia, SM, L Wu, SC Chong, S Passovets, D Xu, Y Xu, and J Zhou. 2004. “Evaluation of 50-mer oligonucleotide arrays for detecting microbial populations in environmental samples.” Biotechniques 36:664-675.

Zhou, J-Z, B Xia, H Huang, AV Palumbo, and JM Tiedje. 2004. “Microbial diversity and heterogeneity in sandy subsurface soils.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:1723-1734.


2003 Back to Top

Adams, RM, BA McCarl, and LO Mearns. 2003. “The effects of spatial scale of climate scenarios on economic assessments: an example from U.S. agriculture.” Climatic Change 60(1-2):131-148.

Alig, RJ, DM Adams, and BA McCarl. 2003. “Projecting impacts of global climate change on the U.S. forest and agriculture sectors and carbon budgets.” Forest Ecology and Management 169:3-14.

Allison, VJ, RM Miller, JD Jastrow, and R Matamala. 2003. “Characterization of environmental and edaphic factors affecting soil microbial communities using a tallgrass prairie restoration chronosequence.” page 10. In Annual Meeting Abstracts, 88th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, Savannah, Georgia. 3-8 August.

Amonette, JE, J Kim, CK Russell, AV Palumbo, and WL Daniels. 2003. “Enhancement of soil carbon sequestration by amendment with Fly Ash.” Paper #47. In Proceedings of the 2003 International Ash Utilization Symposium, Lexington, Kentucky: 20-22, October.

Amonette, JE, J Kim, CK Russell. AV Palumbo, and WL Daniels. 2003. “Fly ash catalyzes carbon sequestration.” In Proceedings of the second annual conference of carbon sequestration, Alexandria, Virginia: 5-8, May.

Bailey, VL, JL Smith, and H Bolton, Jr. 2003. “An examination of novel antibiotics as inhibitors for the selective respiratory inhibition method for measuring fungal:bacterial ratios in soil.” Biology and Fertility of Soils 38:154-16.

Bell, JM, JL Smith, VL Bailey, and H Bolton, Jr. 2003. “Priming effect and C storage in semi-arid no-till spring crop rotations.” Biology and Fertility of Soils 37(4):237-244.

Bever, JD, PA Schultz, RM Miller, L Gades, and JD Jastrow. 2003. “Inoculation with prairie mycorrhizal fungi may improve restoration of native prairie plant diversity.” Ecological Restoration 21:311-312.

Harrison, RB, AB Adams, C Licata, B Flaming, GL Wagoner, P Carpenter, and ED Vance. 2003. “Quantifying deep-soil and coarse-soil fractions: avoiding sampling bias.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:1602-1606.

Huston, MA, and G Marland. 2003. “Carbon management and biodiversity.” Journal of Environmental Management 67:77-86.

Laiho, R, F Sanchez, A Tiarks, PM Dougherty, and CC Trettin. 2003. “Impacts of forestry on early rotation trends in soil carbon pools in the southeastern US.” Forest Ecology and Management 5881:1-13.

Link, SO, JL Smith, JJ Halvorson, and H Bolton, Jr. 2003. “Effect of climate change on perennial bunchgrass and nitrogen pools in a semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystem.” Global Changes in Biology (in press).

 Link, SO, JL Smith, H Bolton, Jr., and JJ Halvorson. 2003. “The effect of climate change on Poa secunda and soils in a shrub-steppe ecosystem.” Global Change Biology 9:1097-1105.

Link, SO, JL Smith, JJ Halvorson, and H Bolton, Jr. 2003. “A reciprocal transplant experiment within a climatic gradient in a semiarid shrub-steppe ecosystems: Effects on bunchgrass growth and reproduction, soil carbon, and soil nitrogen.” Global Changes in Biology 9:1097-1105.

Marland, G, CT Garten Jr., WM Post, and TO West. 2003. “CSiTE studies on carbon sequestration in soils. In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies; Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Pergamon Press, Amsterdam. Pages 1465-1470. J Gale and Y Kaya (eds.).

Marland, E, and G Marland. 2003. “The treatment of long-lived, carbon-containing products in inventories of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.” Environmental Science and Policy 6(2):139-152.

 Marland, G, TO West, B Schlamadinger, and L Canella. 2003. “Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: The net effect on greenhouse gas emissions.” Tellus 55B:613-621.

Marland, G, RA Pielke Sr., M Apps, R Avissar, RA Betts, KJ Davis, PC Frumhoff, ST Jackson, L Joyce, P Kauppi, J Katzenberger, KG MacDicken, R Neilson, JO Niles, DDS Niyogi, RJ Norby, N Pena, N Sampson, and Y Xue. 2003. “The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon management, and the implications for climate-change mitigation policy.” Climate Policy 3:149-157.

Sands, RD, and M Leimbach. 2003. “Modeling agriculture and land use in an integrated assessment framework.” Climatic Change 56:185-210.

 Sedjo, RA, and G Marland. 2003. “Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets: Some issues and alternatives.” Climate Policy 3:435-444.

Schneider, UA, and BA McCarl. 2003. “Economic potential of biomass based fuels for greenhouse gas emission mitigation.” Environmental and Resource Economics 24:291‑312.

Trettin, CC, and MF Jurgensen. 2003. “Carbon cycling in wetland forest soils.” In J Kimble, R Birdsie, and R Lal. The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhous effect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Pages 311-331.

West, TO, and N Peña. 2003. “Determining thresholds for mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions.” Environmental Science and Technology 37:1057-1060.

West, TO, and G Marland. 2003. “Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change.” Biogeochemistry 63:73-82. Zhou, J. 2003. “Microarrays for bacterial detection and microbial community analysis.” Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6:288-294.

Zhu YG, and RM Miller. 2003. “Carbon cycling by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil-plant systems.” Trends in Plant Science 8:407-409.

2002 Back to Top

Alig, RA, DM Adams, and BA McCarl. 2002. “Projecting impacts of global climate change on the US forest and agriculture sectors and carbon budgets.” Forest Ecology and Management 169:3-14.

Bailey, VL, AD Peacock, JL Smith, and H Bolton, Jr. 2002. “Relationships between biomass determined by substrate induced respiration, chloroform fumigation-extraction, and lipid extraction.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(9):1385-1389.

Bailey, VL, JL Smith, and H Bolton, Jr. 2002. “Fungal to bacterial ratios in soils investigated for enhanced C sequestration.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(7):997‑1007.

Drinkwater, LE, P Puget, R Koch, E Sager, and S Naqui. 2002. “The fate of aboveground and belowground carbon from hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), a leguminous green manure.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry (in review).

Garten, CT, Jr., and TL Ashwood. 2002. “Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: Implications for soil carbon sequestration.” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1114, doi:10.1029/2002GB001918.

Hao, YL, R Lal, LB Owens, RC Izaurralde, WM Post, and DL Hothem. 2002. “Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds.” Soil Tillage Research 68:133-142.

Izaurralde, RC. 2002. Topical Editor, Soil organic matter entries. In Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. R Lal (ed.). Web version (http://www.dekker.com/servlet/product/productid/E-ESS).

Izaurralde, RC, and C Cerri. 2002. “Soil organic matter management.” In Encyclopedia of Soil Science, pages 910-916. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. R Lal (ed.).

McCarthy, JF, PR, Jemian, J Ilavsky, and JD Jastrow. 2002. “The physical basis of carbon sequestration in soil microaggregates.” Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2001, ANL‑02/06, http://www.aps.anl.gov/aps/frame_home.html.

Metting, FB, GK Jacobs, JS Amthor, and R Dahlman. 2002. “Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential.” American Chemical Society, Fuel Chemistry Division Preprints 47(1):5‑6.

Pielke, RA, G Marland, RA Betts, TN Chase, JL Eastman, JO Niles, DS Niyogi, and SW Running. 2002. “The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: Televance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 360: 1705-1719.

Pielke, RA, Sr., G Marland, RA Betts, TN Chase, JL Eastman, JO Niles, and D Niyogi. 2002. “The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system - relevance of climate change policy beyond the radioactive effect of greenhouse gases.” In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (in review).

Post, WM. 2002. “Impact of soil restoration, management, and land use history on forest soil carbon.” In Forest Soil Carbon. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.

J Kimble, R Birdsey, R Lal, R Follett, and L Heath (eds.). Post, WM. 2002. “Global distribution of soil organic matter in world ecosystems.” In Encyclopedia of Soil Science, R. Lal (ed.). Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Post, WM, RC, Izaurralde, and J Jastrow. 2002. “Integrated analysis of soil carbon sequestration enhancement methods.” Agronomy Abstracts CD-ROM.

Reilly, J, J Graham, BA McCarl, et. al. 2002. “Changing climate and changing agriculture: Report of the agricultural sector assessment team.” U.S. National Assessment, prepared as part of USGCRP National Assessment of Climate Variability, Cambridge University Press.

Reilly, J, F Tubiello, BA McCarl, D Abler, R Darwin, K Fuglie, S Hollinger, C Izaurralde, S Jagtap, J Jones, L Mearns, D Ojima, E Paul, K Paustian, S Riha, N Rosenberg, and C Rosenzweig. 2002. “U.S. agriculture and climate change: New results.” Climatic Change.

Scott, MJ, RD Sands, NJ Rosenberg, and RC Izaurralde. 2002. “Future N2O from U.S. agriculture: Projecting effects of changing land use, agricultural technology and climate on N2O emissions.” Global Environmental Change 12(2).

Six, J, and JD Jastrow. 2002. “Organic matter turnover.” In Encyclopedia of Soil Science, pages 936-942, R. Lal (ed.). Marcel Dekker, New York.

Smith, JL, JJ Halvorson, and H Bolton, Jr. 2002. “Soil properties and microbial activity across a 500 m elevation gradient in a semi-arid environment.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(11):1749-1757.

Smith, JL. 2002. “Soil quality: The role of microorganisms.” In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, G Bitton (ed). John Wiley & Sons, New York (in press).

West, TO, and G Marland. 2002. “Net carbon flux from agricultural ecosystems: methodology for full carbon cycle analyses.” Environmental Pollution 116:437-444.

West, TO, and G Marland. 2002. “A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: Comparing tillage practices in the United States.” Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 91:217-232.

West, TO, and WM Post. 2002. “Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:1930‑1946.

Zhang, Y, C Li, CC Trettin, H Li, and G Sun. 2002. “An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems.” Global Biogeochemical Cycles V16:X-1, doi:10.1029/2001GB001838.

Zhou, J-Z, B Xia, DS Treves, L-Y Wu, TL Marsh, RV O’Neill, AV Palumbo, and JM Tiedje. 2002. “Spatial and resource factors influencing high microbial diversity in soil.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:326-334.

2001 Back to Top

Adams, A, R Harrison, J McCarthy, and J Amonette. 2001. “Early results of carbon sequestration study.” SMC Quarterly Newsletter, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington 11(11):6.

Adams, RM, CC Chen, BA McCarl, and DE Schimmelpfennig. 2001. “Climate variability and climate change: Implications for agriculture.” In Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources 3, D. Hall and R. Howarth (eds.), pages 115‑148. JAI Press.

Antle, JM, and BA McCarl. 2001. “The economics of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils.” In International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics, Volume VI, T Tietenberg, and H Folmer (eds.), Edward Elgar.

Grubb, M, A Bauen, B Schlamadinger, C Azar, G Berndes, and C Jourdain. 2001. “Carbon sinks and biomass energy: A study of linkages, options, and implications.” Climate Strategies, Imperial College, Environmental Policy and Management Group, London, United Kingdom.

Hao, YL, R Lal, LB Owens, and RC Izaurralde. 2001. “Soil organic carbon erosion assessment by cesium-137.” In Assessment Methods for Soil C Pools, pages 451-465, CRC Press, R Lal et al. (eds.), Boca Raton, Florida.

Hao, YL, R Lal, RC Izaurralde, JC Ritchie, LB Owens, and DL Hothem. 2001. “Historic assessment of agricultural impacts on soil and soil organic carbon erosion in an Ohio watershed.” Soil Science 166(2):116-126.

Izaurralde, RC, KH Haugen-Kozyra, DC Jans, WB McGill, RF Grant, and JC Hiley. 2001. “Soil organic carbon dynamics: measurement, simulation and site to region scale-up.” In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon, R Lal, JM Kimble, RF Follett, and BA Stewart (eds.), pages 553-575. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.

Izaurralde, RC, WB McGill, JA Robertson, NG Juma, and JJ Thurston. 2001. “Carbon balance of the Breton Classical Plots over half a century.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:431-441.

 Izaurralde, RC, NJ Rosenberg, and R Lal. 2001. “Mitigation of climatic change by soil carbon sequestration: Issues of science, monitoring and degraded lands.” Advances in Agronomy 70:1-75. Lal, R. 2001. “Potential of desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect.” Climatic Change 51(1):35-72.

Marland, G, K Fruit, and R Sedjo. 2001. “Accounting for sequestered carbon: The question of permanence.” Environmental Sciences and Policy 4:259-268.

Marland, G, BA McCarl, and UA Schneider. 2001. “Soil carbon: Policy and economics.” Climatic Change 51(1):101-117.

Marland, G, BA McCarl, and UA Schneider. 2001. “Soil carbon: Policy and economics.” In Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils: A Multi-Purpose Environmental Strategy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pages 111-117, NJ Rosenberg, and RC Izaurralde (eds.). Boston, Massachusetts.

Marland, G, TO West, and J Fenderson. 2001. “Carbon emitted, carbon saved.” CDIAC Communications Newsletter, Issue No. 28. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Marland, G, TO West, and B Schlamadinger. 2001. “Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: The net effect on greenhouse gas emissions.” In Sixth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Extended Abstract, Vol. II, pages 857-860. Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Sendai, Japan.

McCarl, BA, RM Adams, and B Hurd. 2001. “Global climate change and its impact on agriculture.” In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Institute of Economics Academia Sinica and UNESCO, Chang and Hsu (eds.).

McCarl, BA, and UA Schneider. 2001. “Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry.” Science 294:2481-2482.

Metting, FB, JL Smith, JS Amthor, and RC Izaurralde. 2001. “Science needs and new technology for increasing soil carbon sequestration.” Climatic Change 51:11-34.

Paustian, K, B Babcock, J Hatfield, R Lal, BA McCarl, S McLaughlin, A Mosier, C Rice, GP Roberton, N Rosenberg, and C Rosenzweig. 2001. “Agricultural mitigation of greenhouse gases: Science and policy options.” CAST Report.

Post, WM, RC Izaurralde, LK Mann, and N Bliss. 2001. “Monitoring and verifying changes of organic carbon in soil.” Climatic Change 51:73-99.

Puget, P, and LE Drinkwater. 2001. “Short-term dynamics of root and shoot-derived carbon from a leguminous green manure.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:771-779.

Puget, P, LE Drinkwater, and R Koch. 2001. “Short-term carbon dynamics of maize residue in organically and conventionally-managed agroecosystems.” 10th International Nitrogen Workshop Proceedings, Reims, France.

Reilly, J, F Tubiello, BA McCarl, and J Melillo. 2001. “Climate Change and agriculture in the United States.” In Climate Change Impacts on the United States: U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change: Foundation, Chapter 13, pages 379-403. Cambridge University Press.

Rosenberg, NJ, and RC Izaurralde. 2001. “Storing carbon in agricultural soils to head-off global warming -- An Editorial Essay.” Climatic Change 51(1):1-10. Rosenberg, NJ, and RC Izaurralde (eds.). 2001. “Storing carbon in agricultural soils: A multi-purpose environmental strategy.” Climatic Change 51:1-10.

Schlamadinger, B, M Grubb, C Azar, A Bauen, and G Berndes. 2001. “Carbon sinks and biomass energy production: A study of linkages, options and implications.” In Climate Strategies, Imperial College, Environmental Policy and Management Group, London, United Kingdom.

Schneider, UA, and BA McCarl. 2001. “Economic potential of biomass for greenhouse gas emission reductions: Comparation role in Agriculture.” In Policies for Greenhouse Gases Reduction and Pollution in Asian-Pacific, R. Mendelsohn (ed.).

Schneider, UA, and BA McCarl. 2001. “Economic potential of biomass based fuels for greenhouse gas emission mitigation.” European Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Trettin, CC, B Song, MF Jurgensen, and C Li. 2001. “Existing soil carbon models do not apply to forested wetlands.” USDA Forest Service GTR SRS-46. U.S. Global Climate Change Research Program, National Assessment Synthesis Team, including BA McCarl. 2001. Climate change impacts on the United States: Overview. Cambridge University Press.

Schneider, UA, and BA McCarl. 2001. “Economic potential of biomass based fuels for greenhouse gas emission mitigation.” European Journal of Agricultural Economics.

2000 Back to Top

Amonette, JE, JA Capp, A Luttge, DR Baer, and RS Arvidson. 2000. Geochemical mechanisms in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In Annual Report 1999, Environmental Dynamics and Simulation, pages 3:23-3:27, PNNL-13206/UC-400. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

Dahlman, RC, and GK Jacobs. 2000. “Research challenges for carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.” In Proceedings of a Symposium on CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Sequestration. American Chemical Society National Meeting, August 20, 2000, Washington D.C.

Hao, YL, R Lal, LB Owens, and RC Izaurralde. 2000. “Soil organic carbon erosion assessment by Cesium-137.” In Adv. Soil Sci: Assessment methods for soil C pools. R Lal et al. (eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Izaurralde, RC, WB McGill, and NJ Rosenberg. 2000. “Carbon cost of applying nitrogen fertilizer.” Science 288:811-812.

Lee, HC, BA McCarl, UA Schneider, and CC Chen. 2000. “Economic Implications of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation.” Climate Policy.

Luxmoore, RJ, TL Mehlhorn, BW Yang, BW Lu, MD Coleman, CC Trettin, SD Wullschleger, and CT Garten, Jr. 2000. “Tillage Effects on Carbon and Nitrogen in a Coastal Plain Soil.” Eos.

Luxmoore, RJ, and ML Tharp. 2000. “Simulated nitrogen fertilization and warming effects on biomass and soil carbon of loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations in the southeastern United States.” Forest Ecology and Management.

McCarl, BA, and U Schneider. 2000. “Agriculture’s role in a greenhouse gas emission mitigation world: An economic perspective.” Review of Agricultural Economics 22:134‑159.

McCarl, BA, and UA Schneider. 2000. “Economic potential of biomass based fuels from agricultural sources.” In Proceeding of Conference Sustainable Energy: New Challenges for Agriculture and Implications for Land Use. Edited by E van Ierland, A Oude Lansink, and E Schmieman.

Miller, RM, and JD Jastrow. 2000. “Mycorrhizal fungi influence soil structure.” In Arbuscular mycorrhizas: Physiology and function. Pages 1-20. Y Kapulnik and D Douds (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Miller, RM, and M Kling. 2000. “The importance of integration and scale in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.” Plant Soil 226:295-309.

Murray, BC, and BA McCarl. 2000. “U.S. Potential for increasing forest Carbon sinks above business-as-usual scenarios: an economic analysis.” Prepared for the Inter-Agency working group on land use and forest sinks, under the direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency.